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Feb 2019

Hemp is NOT medicine

Jan. 2019

Our website is in the processes of being translated to French and will be published soon.

Dec. 2018

Trial results continue for Green Leaf Labs Topical Ointment that have been re-branded; Xtreme Pain Relief (100% THC), Pain & Repair (50% CBD 50% THC) and Repair (100% CBD).  Preliminary results of testing and trails have clearly demonstrated the benefits in pain reduction through the application of our Topical Ointments for various internal and external medical problems. Reported results have shown a 97% benefit in reducing affliction pain.  Green Leaf Labs continues to improve these products without compromising their intended therapeutic benefits. Stay tuned for more updates. Contract us via the form below if you wish to participate in the trials. (To participate in the trial, you must be of legal age in your province or territory to consume or use Medical Cannabis. You must be a Canadian citizen.)

Nov. 2018

Green Leaf Labs has begun testing and trials with our new Topical Ointment, Xtreme Pain Relief. Xtreme Pain Relief is being developed as an external (non-edible) cream to be applied to the location of the body experiencing pain. Xtreme Pain Relief will be available in 3 varieties, high CBD, 50-50, or high THC depending on the condition being treated. Contact us for more information and to see if Xtreme Pain Relief can help you.

Oct. 2018

Green Leaf Labs began testing and trials with facial cream for women, formulated to reduce wrinkles. As testing progresses we will update this site with more information and availability.

Our Story

Green Leaf Labs grew out of survival of our founder to find and develop a solution to overcome cancer. A two-time cancer survivor who could not accept the future that was he was facing. After his first battle in 2011 with chemotherapy and with the blessing of his oncologist he began his journey to self-heal using cannabis. He tried many different suppliers but the quality and potency were below what he needed to heal. Today, after many years of ongoing testing and being cancer-free for years, he believes that his knowledge, caring for people and understanding of how to produce, prepare and select the best cannabis products in the most effective and biological and organic (chemical free) manner has resulted In the creation of Green Leaf Labs in 2014.

All of our products start with hydroponically grown cannabis strains. The plants are grown in enclosed pods to ensure purity, cleanliness and protection from outside contaminants. All nutrients provided to the plants is organic. No chemicals ever touch the products. Green Leaf Labs has 26 products of different potencies to fit your health requirements that are packaged as oil or capsules for ease of use.

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About Medical Cannabis

45 Ailments Treatable with Cannabis

June 2, 2016


Cannabis is proving to be a game-changer and a life-saver.

Once you learn about the , it becomes very clear just why cannabis can treat so many different illnesses.

The great thing about cannabis as medicine is that it’s all-natural, and you don’t have to worry about potentially fatal side effects that you get with other so-called medicines.

Our medicine should be something that makes us feel better, not a chemical experiment that makes us feel worse or that could kill us.

And with cannabis, we literally have decades’ worth of research (despite government restriction) that proves its effectiveness and safety.

endocannabinoid system graphic

The endocannabinoid system is responsible for keeping all of our metabolic processes in check.

The good news is that as prohibition continues to fall apart, patients have an increasing number in cannabis options, be it through , ,topicals, or even 

Here are just 45 of the ailments treatable with cannabis.

#1) Prostate Cancer as well as MOST other cancer types…

Recent anecdotal and scientific evidence – including a 2009 study published in the British Journal of Cancer – suggests that prostate cancer as well as most other types of cancer could be inhibited through cannabinoid treatment.

#2) Depression>

Depression is a medical issue affects 9 percent of Americans. A ray of hope has come through preliminary research released in 2015 in the Journal of Neuroscience found that compounds gleaned from cannabis could help ease symptoms of depression in patients.

#3) Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Most prevalent in children and often carried over into adulthood, ADHD shows through a seeming inability to pay attention and a general exhibition of hyperactivity and impulsivity. According to Dr. David Bearman, cannabis is likely more effective than pharmaceuticals in treating ADHD by increasing the availability of dopamine in the brain, which is responsible for regulating behavior and focusing attention. This would explain a lot of the anecdotal reports we get from people who successfully self-treat their ADHD with cannabis.

#4) Crohn’s Disease

Multiple studies have found this painful and life-threatening disease – also known as ‘inflammatory bowel disease’ – to be treatable with cannabinoid therapy.

#5) Chronic Stress

Chronic stress – with such symptoms as panic attacks, depression, sleep deprivation, and cardiovascular diseases – can have debilitating effects on a person’s psychological and physical health. Thankfully, multiple studies – including one conducted by researchers from Vanderbilt University – find cannabis to be highly effective in reducing chronic stress and its effects.

#6) Cigarette Addiction

Cigarette addiction is regarded as one of the leading worldwide causes of preventable death, and curbing the rate of smokers has become a top priority for physicians. Luckily, it turns out that the administration of cannabidiol (CBD) helps with the management of withdrawal symptoms for smokers looking to quit.

#7) Arthritis

Compounds from cannabis have proven to be a remarkably effective treatment of both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

#8) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

People have believed for years that cannabis could be effective in the treatment of PTSD. Now it appears that the view is going mainstream: The U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) approved in April 2016 a clinical study to combat the disorder’s effects. Meanwhile, PTSD patients have been telling us all along that cannabis works best.

#9) Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a disease in the optic nerve that often results in blindness. The use of cannabis – particularly through oral ingestion – has been found to lower pressure in the eye. Yet despite initial optimism, further study into cannabis’s effects on glaucoma patients has been encouraged by medical professionals.

10) AIDS/HIV

While not offered as a ‘cure’ for HIV/AIDS, cannabis has proven to be effective in the treatment of symptoms, which include nausea, loss of appetite, and anxiety.

#11) Alzheimer’s Disease

While a great deal of research has yet to be completed on the matter, preliminary scientific literature suggests that cannabinoids therapy can provide symptomatic relief – as well as a slowing of Alzheimer’s’ progression.

#12) Headaches

Over-the-counter drugs can be effective in the treatment of headaches; however, many of the common OTC treatments – such as Aleve and Tylenol, among others – can lead to deterioration in stomach lining. Cannabis, on the other hand, has been found to be a potentially effective natural treatment for headaches, including migraines.

#13) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

CBD – one of the main compounds in cannabis – has been shown to effectively combat and regulate anxiety. This could prove to be a game-changer for those living with the effects of OCD.

#14) Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

MS is a degenerative disease that affects the central nervous system and can ultimately result in permanent disability or even death. While examination of the disease is ongoing, people are finding cannabis to be an effective measure of relief for patients suffering from multiple sclerosis.

#15) Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS aka Lou Gehrig’s Disease)

ALS is a debilitating disease of the nervous system that attacks spinal cord and brain neurons, over time resulting in paralysis and often times death from respiratory failure. No cure currently exists for ALS, but studies and anecdotal evidence suggest that medical cannabis could play a future role in the disease’s treatment and relief of symptoms.

#16) Chronic Pain

Chronic pain has been defined as any pain that lasts longer than 12 weeks – and encompasses such areas as physical, pathological, neurobiological, psychological, and social pain. While the causes of chronic pain are many, cannabis has is an often recommended treatment by physicians, and the number one ailment among medical cannabis patients.


Physicians around the world are embracing cannabis as medicine because they want to see their patients actually get better.

17) Pancreatic Cancer

At least one study – appearing in the seminal publication Cancer Research – suggests that cannabis could prove instrumental in treating the cancer regarded as the fourth-deadliest cancer diagnosis.

#18) Opioid Addiction

The media and the medical community alike have acknowledged opioid addiction as one of the country’s leading public health crises. However, one study, appearing in the Journal of the American Medical Association, found states with relevant medical cannabis laws have a lower opioid-related mortality rate (by nearly 25 percent!).

#19) Disc Degeneration

Intervertebral discs – also known simply as ‘discs’ – are masses of cartilage that sit between each vertebra. Degenerated discs, if left untreated, can result in spinal stenosis, osteoarthritis, or herniated discs. A 2014 study on rats with recreated disc degenerations found that the subjects treated with higher doses of cannabidiol saw their conditions measurably improve.

#20) Skin Cancer

While the medical establishment remains dubious on this one, people continue to share with the world how cannabis helped them overcome skin cancer.

#21) Traumatic Brain Injury

Two recent surveys – one appearing in The American Surgeon and the other in Brain Sciences – offer substantial support to the notion that cannabis can be an effective treatment for traumatic brain injuries among both adults and perinatal children.

#22) Parkinson’s Disease

A significant amount of research has already been completed on the relationship between cannabis and the management and improvement of Parkinson’s Disease patients’ health. Such studies have found an improvement in sleep, improvement of motor control, and a general improvement in quality of life.

#23) Muscular Dystrophy

Muscular dystrophy is the slow degeneration of muscle mass throughout the body. Though the disease is genetic and research on the issue has yet to be fully sussed out, one 2010 study detailed the ways in which cannabis could prove beneficial to patients suffering from the disease.

#24) Epilepsy

This seizure-inducing condition has been on the radar of cannabis advocates for years, and we are beginning to see why: Multiple studies have found a link between cannabis treatment and the lowering – or even cessation – of epileptic seizures.

25) Autism

Scientific studies  – plus a sizable amount of anecdotal evidence – suggest that placing greater emphasis on supplementing the endocannabinoid system with phytocannabinoids could lead to enhanced treatment of autism, especially in children.

#26) Lupus

This chronic inflammatory disease affects approximately 1.5 to 2 million Americans. Though the disease has no cure, two of the most common therapeutic properties of cannabis – pain and inflammation relief – are effective in alleviating lupus’s symptoms.

Cannabis plant

Cannabis is a valuable herb that has been wrongfully demonized for decades.

#27) Malaria

Malaria is transmitted to humans by mosquitos and may result in everything from blood vessel clogs to brain cell damage. While deaths related to malaria have fallen in recent years, an animal study published last year in Neuroscience found CBD treatment to improve the mental functioning and survival rates of subjects infected with the disease.

#28) Schizophrenia

This debilitating mental disorder could result in hallucinations, incoherent speech, social withdrawal, and institutionalization. Despite conflicting studies and reports, many schizophrenia patients turn to cannabis to ease their symptoms, and one study has revealed that the endocannabinoid system has a direct involvement in the mental illness.

#29) Leukemia

This dangerous form of cancer – which affects the blood and starts in the bone marrow – has been investigated for its possible responses to CBD and THC treatment. Though there remains a great deal of work to be done on the issue, preliminary studies suggest that cannabis treatment for leukemia has a bright future in the years ahead.

#30) Strokes

Strokes – defined as the temporary blockage of blood to the brain – can have debilitating long-term effects on motor and speech skills, as well as brain damage. It turns out cannabis can protect the brain of stroke victims, reducing the amount of damage suffered.

#31) Breast Cancer

This is the most common cancer among women and while a great deal of research remains to be completed on how the disease responds to cannabis treatment, a study published last year in Molecular Oncology found CBD to be a “potent” drug in fighting triple-negative breast cancer.

#32) Fibromyalgia

This muscle pain-and fatigue-inducing disorder has been found to be effectively treated using medical cannabis. Cannabis users in this study, conducted by researchers at Spain’s University of Granada, experienced a decrease in pain and a greater quality of life.

#33) Colon Cancer

This particularly vicious strain of cancer has been met with effective treatment through the use of cannabis extracts high in CBD.

#34) Heart disease>

Cardiovascular disease – also known as heart disease – is cited as the world’s leading cause of death, with roughly 17.3 million deaths per year. However, studies working with medical cannabis compounds have found cannabinoids to be effective in improving cardiovascular functions, but also that the damage caused by heart attacks may be constrained through ultra-low doses of THC.

Buds and Roses Cannabis dispensary

Dispensaries are turning into pharmacies, except their medicine is safe and effective.

#35) Asthma

Studies  have found that the effects of cannabis and its components have resulted in measurable improvement in asthma-like symptoms, and there are actually several reasons why   cannabis can work wonders here.

#36) Huntington’s Disease

This neurodegenerative disorder over time can result in physical and mental degradation. No cure currently exists, but studies indicate that cannabis may be effective in preventing certain neurodegenerative diseases, as well as treating some of the symptoms associated with Huntington’s.

#37) Alcoholism

For many people suffering from alcoholism, cannabis has become a go-to substitute. Essentially, cannabis provides them a much safer, healthier alternative.

#38) Diabetes

An estimated 29.1 million people in the U.S. suffer from diabetes. Cannabis, however, has proven to be helpful in managing or even preventing type-2 diabetes.

#39) Bladder Cancer

A February 2015 study published in The Journal of Urology found the use of whole-plant cannabis in California men to be “inversely associated with bladder cancer risk.” While the study took care to say that a causal effect was not detected, the study nonetheless offers promise to those looking to counteract the effects or even prevent this harmful and often fatal disease.

40) Obesity<

A recent study by the CDC found that a whopping 36 percent of Americans are considered obese. Thankfully, studies show cannabis being highly effective in the fight against obesity.

#41) Painful Bladder Syndrome

At least one study has found that interstitial cystitis – a chronic bladder disease also known as painful bladder syndrome – may be treated through the use of cannabinoids.

#42) Sleep Disorders

Lack of sleep can lead to a slew of health problems including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. Many insomnia patients have found relief through cannabis, specifically THC, which acts as an all-natural sleep aid.

#43) Shingles

The skin rash shingles, while most common in older patients, is nonetheless highly prevalent. It is estimated that as many as one third of people will develop shingles in their lifetime. While a cure for the rash has yet to be discovered, cannabinoids may offer treatment for the pain associated with the disease’s effects.

#44) Tourette’s Syndrome

The neuropsychiatric disorder Tourette’s Syndrome – which results in a series of involuntary ‘tics’ and the cause of which remains unknown – has no known cure. However, while research on the disorder’s relationship with cannabis remains ongoing,   studies have already been undertaken showing promise through treatment with cannabinoid therapy.

#45) Osteoporosis

Several studies published in the last five years – including one in the  British Journal of Pharmacology  and one in  Cell Metabolism – found that bone erosion caused by osteoporosis could be curtailed by bolstering the endocannabinoid system of affected patients with cannabinoid therapy.

It is not recommended to consume or combine alcohol while using medical cannabis. Consider 0% Beers or 0% Wines as an alternative.

It is strongly advised to avoid using a motor vehicle or any heavy machinery while under the influence of cannabis. The psychoactive or sedative effects may be dangerous. Like all medications, it is best to avoid using any machinery until you know for sure how it affects you. It is illegal to drive while under the influence of cannabis.

Understandably, opioid addicts are terrified, and many are beginning to turn to unconventional treatments to overcome their addiction. As the number of accepted medical uses for cannabis has steadily grown over the past decade, many wonder if cannabis can be an effective treatment for opioid addiction.

Unfortunately, there is no clear evidence showing that cannabis can help people suffering from opioid withdrawals. However, cannabis use may be of some benefit during other stages of opioid addiction treatment.

Can You Use Marijuana to Get Off Opioids (Heroin/Painkillers)?

Can Medical Marijuana Treat Opioid Addiction?

Can High-CBD Cannabis Combat Pain and Reduce Addiction Rates?

As a Canadian under the Medical Cannabis Health Canada policy you may be qualified to obtain a medical marijuana prescription if you have been diagnosed with any of the illnesses listed below. IMPORTANT: Although you may not have one of the listed illnesses, you may still qualify for the Medical Cannabis program if you have a medical condition negatively affecting your quality of life.

  • ADD/ADHD
    AIDS/HIV
    Alzheimer’s Disease
    ALS
    Anorexia
    Anxiety
    Arthritis
    Asthma
    Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema)
    Back Pain
    Bi-polar Type I and II
    Cancer
    Congenital Disorders
    Crohn’s Disease
    CTSD (Continuous Traumatic Stress Disorder)
    Depression
    Diabetes
    Dystonia
    Epilepsy
    Fibromyalgia
    GI Disorders
    GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder)
    Glaucoma
    Hepatitis C
    Herpes Zoster (Shingles)
    Huntington's Disease
    Hypertension
    Incontinence
    Inflammation
    Insomnia
    Loss of Appetite
    Loss of Sex Drive
    Lupus
    Lyme Disease
    Menopause
    Migraines
    MRSA
    Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
    Muscle Spasms
    Osteoporosis
    Nausea
    Pain
    Parkinson’s Disease
    Pruritus
    PMS
    Psoriasis
    PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder)
    Rheumatoid Arthritis
    Sciatic Nerve Pain
    Seizures
    Severe Arthritis
    Severe Inflammatory or Joint Dysfunction
    Sleep Apnea
    Sleep Problems
    Spasticity
    Spinal Cord Injuries
    Spinal Cord Injury and Disease
    Stress
    Temporomandibular Joint Disorder (“TMJ”)
    Tendonitis
    Tinnitus
    Tourette Syndrome
    Unexplained Weight Loss
    …and more

Increased appetite is a well know side effect with higher doses of THC. Medical cannabis can have the effect of decreasing nausea and stimulate appetite for symptoms caused by cancer, HIV/AIDS and chemotherapy. Speak with your doctor and our product specialists to find the best product for your needs.

There are many ways to administer and consume medical cannabis. Green Leaf Labs has found that the most effective method of obtaining the intended potency without the negative side effects of smoking or vaporizing is to consume medical cannabis orally. Smoking or vaping has rapid symptom relief; however oral ingestion has proven to have a longer lasting and sustained duration of action and effect. The duration to action of orally ingested cannabis can be a short as 20 minutes for some patients to a long as one to two hours.

There is always a potential for abuse just like any other drug. Patients should consult with their healthcare provider to weigh the risks and benefits. Studies have shown that the rate of addiction is approximately 9%.

In consultation with your medical practitioner it is important to consider the anticipated benefits against the potential risks. If you are taking other prescription medication, your healthcare practioner can recommend a dosage that will not have negatively impact those medications. If you have a family history of schizophrenia or other psychiatric disorders including addiction, you and your healthcare practitioner should proceed with caution.

Like any medication, medical cannabis has risks along with benefits. Health Canada's quality control standards and Green Leaf Labs independent testing practices ensure that all products are free from potentially harmful contaminants, impurities or toxins

Evidence suggest palliative treatments may be augmented with the use of medical cannabis. There is also the antiemetic properties that act as an orexigenic, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. Medical cannabis can also relieve symptoms of PTSD, GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder) and much more.

"Start Low and Go Slow" is a common term used by physicians that specialize in cannabis and cannabinoid medicines. We offer two types of products, capsules infused with cannabis and organic coconut oil, and cannabis oils. You should consult with your doctor or one of our product specialists to determine the best product type for you. Under current Canadian law, patients have the right to choose how the consume medical cannabis.

Indica is usually associated with sedation and pain-relief. Sativa is frequently described as having a mentally stimulating effect. Hybrids have a mixture of both. CBD, in its pure form is non-intoxicating. CBD strains are typically used for pain-relief, inflammation and anticonvulsant.

There are basically two breads of cannabis, excluding, of course, hybrids.

Below are generally expected effects from the breads.

  • INDICA:
    Calm
    Carefree
    Couch-lock
    Mellow
    Relaxed
    Sleepy
  • SATIVA:
    Alert
    Cheerful
    Creative
    Energetic
    Euphoric
    Sociable
CBD is one of over 80+ compounds found in cannabis that belong to a class of molecules called cannabinoids. Of these compounds, CBD and THC are usually the most recognised and studied.

CBD and THC levels often vary between different strains and varieties of cannabis. By using selective techniques, breeders have managed to create varieties with high levels of CBD and THC.

CBD is now known as the cannabinoid with the widest array of medicinal properties. Unlike THC, CBD has non-psychoactive effects so has gained more widespread reputable acclaim as a genuine alternative medicine:

  • Various studies have indicated that CBD has Antiemetic properties, combating nausea, migraines and vomiting. A Canadian based report indicated that manipulation of cannabinoid receptors using CBD suppressed the severe nausea and vomiting in chemotherapy patients, far more effectively than any available pharmaceutical drug.
  • A 2010 report discovered anti-depressant properties linked to CBD. Tests on animal models revealed that CBD had the same anti-depressant effects as Imipramine, a popular pharmaceutical anti-depressant medicine, without the potentially life-threatening side effects.
  • A vast array of research on CBD and its relationship with cancer has concluded that the cannabinoid has potentially life saving anti-cancer and anti-tumoral properties. An in vitro study revealed that CBD induced programmed cell death in breast cancer independent of the (once considered necessary) CB-1 and CB-2 receptors. Further research into colon cancer revealed the chemo preventative properties of CBD in a mouse model. Combined with popular investigative compound Azoxymethane, CBD was found to prevent pre-malignant and malignant tumours in the colon.
  • Many studies suggest that CBD has may have anti-oxidant properties. However, the most conclusive report published indicates that despite it having no side effects on patients, even in large doses, it remained inactive at the NDMA receptor (the most predominant molecular device for controlling memory) meaning that it could not be used as a long term neuroprotective agent. However, the study did recognise its ability to treat other ailments such as Glaucoma and Seizures.
  • A 2009 study explained the anti-convulsant properties of CBD in animal models. “CBD (100 mg/kg) exerted clear anticonvulsant effects with significant decreases in incidence of severe seizures and mortality compared with vehicle-treated animals.” CBD also worked independently of the CB-1 receptor during these clinical trials, increasing its validity as a genuine anti-epileptic drug for clinical seizures. Public interest in CBD was stimulated by a CNN report on medical marijuana by Dr. Sanjay Gupta. Previously a cynic on medical marijuana, Dr. Gupta acknowledged having been conditioned by government propaganda. Gupta presented the story of a 5-year-old girl, Charlotte Figi, who suffered frequent epileptic seizures from a rare disease known as Dravet’s syndrome. Conventional treatment having failed, Charlotte’s condition radically improved after she was treated orally with an extract of CBD-rich cannabis.
Official Research Reports

Regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids (Linda A. Parker, Erin Rock and Cheryl Limebeer)
Cannabis and Cannabinoids (PDQ®) (National Cancer Institute)
Cannabidiol displays antiepileptiform and antiseizure properties in vitro and in vivo.
Antidepressant-like effects of cannabidiol in mice: possible involvement of 5-HT1A receptors (TV Zanelati, C Biojone, FA Moreira, FS Guimarães and SRL Joca, 2010)
Cannabinoids as antioxidants and neuroprotectants (Aidan J. Hampson, Julius Axelrod, Maurizio Grimaldi, 1999)

The CB-1 receptor is one of a known number of cannabinoid receptors located in the human body. Discovered in the late 1980’s, these receptors, along with endocannabinoids can assist in a number of functions in our body, including stabilizing heart conditions, controlling brain activity, regulating the immune system and much more. The natural cannabinoids that have been discovered in the human body (endocannabinoids), along with both CB-1 and CB-2 receptors have been coined the ‘Endogenous Cannabinoid System’. Research also suggests that their may be further cannabinoid receptors in the human body (GPR18, GPR55 and GPR119) although these have yet to be formally analysed and titled as such.

CB-1 receptors are primarily concentrated in the brain and central nervous system but do sparsely populate other areas of the body. Along with endocannabinoids such as anandamide, CB-1 receptors can be activated through plant cannabinoids including THC from the cannabis plant.

Over the past 2 decades, there have been numerous studies that have implicated CB-1 receptors as a prominent factor in internal human health maintenance.

Studies have shown that active CB-1 receptors modulate neurotransmitter releases in such a way as to halt disproportionate neuronal activity, alleviating pain and inflammation.
This information is especially pertinent when coupled with the discovery that CB-1 receptors have been found in increased population in carcinoma tumour samples and other human prostate cancer cells. This has lead many scientific researchers to believe that active CB-1 receptors can prevent the growth and inflammation of cancer cells.

CB-1 Receptors

An animal model study conducted in 2015 revealed that CB-1 Receptors have anti-depressant effects when activated with endocannabinoids. The results provided clear evidence that the endo-cannabinoid system plays a key role in controlling depressive behavioural tendencies.

Official Research Reports
CB1 cannabinoid receptors mediate endochondral skeletal growth attenuation by THC (Wasserman E, 2015)
Antidepressant-like effects of the cannabinoid receptor ligands in the forced swimming test in mice: Mechanism of action and possible interactions with cholinergic system (Kruk-Slomka M,2015)
CB1 Receptors modulate anxiety-like behavior (Lisboa SF, 2015)
The pharmacologic and clinical effects of medical cannabis (Borgelt LM, 2013)

Discovered in 1993 by researchers at Cambridge University looking for a second receptor that could explain the therapeutic properties of THC, the CB-2 Receptor has since played a vital role in scientific study on the importance of the endocannabinoids system and its agonists.

Despite being closely related to its CB-1 counterpart, CB-2 receptors do not transmit as efficiently to the brain as CB-1 receptors, although have still been known to play a role in modulating neurological disorders. Instead, CB-2 receptors are concentrated predominantly in peripheral organs; most commonly the immune system, the gastrointestinal system and the peripheral nervous system. Scientific investigations have indicated that CB-2 receptors are prevalent throughout the tissues of the immune system. The receptors have been found to regulate the release of cytokines; proteins that control the development and receptiveness of cell populations that respond to infection or inflammation. CB-2 receptors have also been discovered in the peripheral nervous system, where they have the ability to mediate palliative effects.

Perhaps the most significant discovery regarding the functions of CB-2 receptors is their ability to control inflammation in the gastrointestinal system, making their cannabinoid agonists a genuine therapeutic option for diseases such as Crohn’s or IBS.

Despite CB-1 receptors playing a far more important role in brain function than its counterpart, CB-2 receptors have nonetheless been discovered in the brain. While CB-1 receptors work in conjunction with neurons, CB-2 receptors work specifically with Microglia cells, whose primary function is to control immune defense in the nervous system.

The visual below indicates the primary functions of CB-2 Receptors in the human body.

CB-2 Receptors

Official Research Reports
Activation of Cannabinoid Type Two Receptors Diminish Inflammatory Responses in Macrophages and Brain Endothelium. (Persidsky Y, 2015)
Cannabinoid Receptor CB2 Is Involved in Tetrahydrocannabinol-Induced Anti-Inflammation against Lipopolysaccharide in MG-63 Cells. (Yang L, 2015)
Is lipid signaling through cannabinoid 2 receptors part of a protective system? (P. Pacher, 2011)
Cannabinoids and intestinal motility: welcome to CB2 receptors (Angelo A Izzo, 2004)
Cannabinoid CB2 receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase are selectively overexpressed in neuritic plaque-associated glia in Alzheimer’s disease brains. (Benito C, 2003)

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the principal psychoactive and most renowned ingredient in marijuana and, depending on the particular plant, either THC or cannabidiol (CBD) is the most abundant cannabinoid in marijuana.

First discovered by Israeli Scientists in the early 1960’s, THC is the most researched, analysed and effective cannabinoid in the spectrum and has been attributed therapeutic value in over 30 ailments:
  • A 1996 study revealed that THC can halt the development of certain tumours, through the initiation of cell death.
  • In 2006, a study revealed that THC, along with endogenous cannabinoids can stimulate appetite, making it an ideal therapeutic alternative for anorexia, cachexia and bulimia.
  • A recent study indicated that THC can help with pain relief. THC blocks pathways through the central nervous system, systematically preventing pain signals from the brain.
  • A 1998 study revealed that THC reduced intraocular pressure in Glaucoma patients by up to 65%. However, the effects were short lived and would be impossible to continue without the risk of systemic toxic effects. Scientists are working on a way to prolong the reduced pressure.
  • A study by the University of Illinois indicated that THC can stabilises autonomic output during sleep, reduces spontaneous sleep-disordered breathing, and blocks serotonin-induced exacerbation of sleep disorders such as sleep apnea.
  • A study published by the Virginia Commonwealth University suggested that THC binding onto CB-1 receptors can reduce the duration and seriousness of seizures in epileptic test models.
  • A 2006 study in the Journal of Molecular Pharmaceutics, concluded that THC inhibits enzymes that are key pathological markers in the development of Alzheimer's.

Terpenes give cannabis its aroma diversity. For more information see Wikipedia Terpene.

15 most commonly found Terpenes in Cannabis

There are approximately 120 terpenes in cannabis. Below is a short list of the most abundant terpenes found in cannabis flowers.

Myrcene

Myrcene is the most abundant terpene, which is where it’s mostly found in nature. One study showed that myrcene makes up as much as 65% of total terpene profile in some strains. (4)
The smell of Myrcene may remind us of earthy, musky notes, similar to cloves. It may also have a fruity, red grape-like aroma.

Strains that contain 0.5% of this terpene are usually indicas, that have a high sedative effect. Myrcene has been reported to be useful in reducing inflammation and chronic pain, which is why it’s strongly recommended as a supplement during cancer treatments.

Limonene

Not all strains contain Limonene but those that do, it is the second most abundant terpene in cannabis.

As the name itself says, limonene produces a citrusy smell that resembles lemons, which is no surprise as all citrus fruits contain large amounts of this compound. Limonene is used in cosmetics and also in cleaning products.

When it comes to its therapeutic purposes, limonene is a mood-booster and a stress-crusher. Researchers also found it to have anti-fungal and antibacterial properties, with one study even announcing that limonene may play a role in reducing tumor size. (5)

Linalool

What makes cannabis smell the way it does, myrcene and linalool. With spicy and floral notes, this terpene is one of the most abundant in the majority of strains out there and, together with myrcene produces a pungent, spicy scent.

Linalool can also be found in lavender, mint, cinnamon, and coriander. What’s interesting is that just like those aromatic herbs, linalool also produces sedation and relaxation.

Patients suffering from arthritis, depression, seizures, insomnia and even cancer, find relief with this terpene.

Caryophyllene

Caryophyllene is also found in black pepper, cinnamon, cloves, and spices like oregano, basil, and rosemary.

Beta-caryophyllene binds to CB2 receptors, which makes it an ingredient in anti-inflammatory topicals and creams. Caryophyllene is the only terpene that binds to cannabinoid receptors.

Besides its analgesic and anxiolytic properties, studies have found that caryophyllene has a very promising role in alcohol rehabilitation.

A group of scientists performed research on mice and found that this terpene reduces the voluntary intake of alcohol. They even recommended caryophyllene for treating alcohol withdrawal symptoms. (6)

Alpha-pinene and Beta-pinene

These twin terpenes smell like pine trees which is also where they can be found in large amounts. Other plants rich in pinene include rosemary, orange peels, basil, parsley and cannabis.

Like many other, pinene terpenes have an anti-inflammatory effect on humans.

They also help improve the airflow and respiratory functions, while also helping reduce memory loss related to excessive THC consumption. Pinene is also beneficial for patients suffering from arthritis, Crohn’s Disease, and even cancer.

Alpha-bisabolol

Alpha-bisabolol (also known as levomenol and bisabolol) has a pleasant floral aroma and is also present in chamomile flower and the candeia tree.

It is primarily used in the cosmetics industry. Researchers have begun to discover its potential medical benefits.

Alpha-bisabolol proved to be effective in treating bacterial infections and wounds and is a great antioxidant with anti-irritation and analgesic properties.

Eucalyptol

Known as cineole, eucalyptol is the primary terpene of the eucalyptus tree. It produces minty tones but most cannabis strains only have it in traces. On average, it makes up around 0.06% of the complete cannabis terpene profile.

Eucalyptol is extensively used in cosmetics as well as medicine. When it comes to its medical value, eucalyptol relieves pain but also slows down the growth of bacteria and fungus.

In early stage research, this terpene has shown some promising effects on Alzheimer’s.

Trans-nerolidol

This one is a secondary terpene, found mostly in flowers like jasmine, lemongrass, and tea tree oil. Its smell is a mixture of rose, lemon and apple tones, and can be described in general as both woody and citrusy.

Trans-nerolidol is best known for its antiparasitic, antioxidant, antifungal, anticancer and antimicrobial properties.

Humulene

Humulene is the first terpene found in hops and its aroma is made up of earthy, woody and spicy notes.

It can be also found in clove, sage, and black pepper.

It has many medical properties. Also, it proved to be effective in suppressing appetite, which could make it a potential weight loss tool.

Furthermore, like many other terpenes mentioned above, humulene also reduces inflammation, relieves pain and fights bacterial infections.

Delta 3 Carene

This terpene is found in a number of plants, like rosemary, basil, bell peppers, cedar and pine. Its aroma is sweet and resembles the smell of cypress.

Its medical properties seem to be beneficial in healing broken bones, which is a beacon of hope for patients suffering from osteoporosis, arthritis and even fibromyalgia.

Interestingly enough, Delta 3 carene stimulates our memory and helps with memory retention. This is a major point in finding a cure for Alzheimer’s disease.

Camphene

The best way to describe the smell of camphene is damp woodlands.

Camphene has great potential in medicine. When mixed with vitamin C, it becomes a powerful antioxidant and it is widely used in conventional medicine as a topical for skin issues like eczema and psoriasis.

Its greatest potential, however, lies in its ability to lower the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, both of which are connected to many cardiovascular diseases.

Borneol

Borneol, with its herbal minty scent, can be found in herbs like rosemary, mint, and camphor.

This terpene is a good natural insect repellent, which makes it great for preventing diseases like the West Nile virus. One study even found that borneol kills breast cancer cells. (7)

Terpineol

The aroma of terpineol is a floral-like scent, reminiscent of lilacs, apple blossom, and a hint of lemon. Terpineol tastes like anise and mint.

It's a common ingredient in perfumes, cosmetics, and food.

It's a well-known relaxant and is usually the one responsible for the notorious couch-lock effect which is often connected with indica strains. Medical benefits of terpineol also include antibiotic and antioxidant properties.

Valencene

This terpene got its name from sweet Valencia oranges — where it’s present in large amounts. With its sweet citrusy aroma and flavor, it’s also used as an insect repellant.

At this point we don’t know much about valencene.

Geraniol

Geraniol can be found in lemons and tobacco. Its smell resembles a mixture of rose grass, peaches, and plums.

It’s usually used in aromatic bath products and body lotions.

Geraniol has shown a lot of potential as a neuroprotectant and antioxidant.

References

  1. Ben-Shabat S, Fride E, Sheskin T, Tamiri T, Rhee MH, Vogel Z, Bisogno T, De Petrocellis L, Di Marzo V, Mechoulam R; An entourage effect: inactive endogenous fatty acid glycerol esters enhance 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol cannabinoid activity; European Journal of Pharmacology; July 1998; 353(1):23-31
  2. Gertsch J, Leonti M, Raduner S, Racz I, Chen JZ, Xie XQ, Altmann KH, Karsak M, Zimmer A; Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid; Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America; July 2008; 105(26):9099-9104
  3. Russo EB; Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects; British Journal of Pharmacology; August 2011; 163(7): 1344–1364
  4. Mediavilla V, Steinemann S; Essential oil of Cannabis sativa L. strains; Journal of the International Hemp Association, 1997, 4(2):80-82
  5. Miller JA, Lang JE, Ley M, Nagle R, Hsu CH, Thompson PA, Cordova C, Waer A, Chow HH, Human breast tissue disposition and bioactivity of limonene in women with early-stage breast cancer, Cancer Prevention Research, Jun 2013, 6(6):577-584
  6. Al Mansouri S, Ojha S, Al Maamari E, Al Ameri M, Nurulain SM, Bahi A; The cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist, β-caryophyllene, reduced voluntary alcohol intake and attenuated ethanol-induced place preference and sensitivity in mice; Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior; September 2014, 124:260-268
  7. Yang CB, Pei WJ, Zhao J, Cheng YY, Zheng XH, Rong JH; Bornyl caffeate induces apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells via the ROS- and JNK-mediated pathways, Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 2014, 35:113–123

DMSO is easily absorbed by the skin. It's used to increase the body's absorption of other medications or as an additive to a topical ointment medication solution.

DMSO is available without a prescription most often in gel or cream form or infused within another product.
DMSO is primarily used by applying it to the skin and not to be ingested orally.

The most frequent side effects from using DMSO on the skin in high doses include:

  • Stomach upset
  • Skin irritation
  • Strong odor of garlic

More serious side effects include:

  • Severe allergic reactions
  • Headaches
  • Itching and burning when applied to the skin

DMSO can increase the effect of some medicines, which can lead to serious health issues. Examples of such medicines include:

  • Blood thinners
  • Steroids
  • Sedatives

The biggest concern of DMSO is that when it gets on the skin it will cause anything on the skin to be absorbed. So be sure to wash your hands and skin well before using or use rubber gloves to apply to the area to be treated then cover the area with a clean dry cloth or bandage.

Pregnant women and women who are breastfeeding should not use DMSO, since little is known about its possible effects on the fetus or infant.

You should also not use DMSO without talking to your doctor if you have:

  • Diabetes
  • Asthma
  • Liver and kidney conditions
Over the years humans have devised many, many ways to ingest marijuana.  Some people like to smoke or vape it. Others like to eat it by infusing it into food.  For medication most prefer a highly-concentrated paste-like substance that is so potent that a patient need ingest only a minuscule amount of it in order to medicate.  One of the healthiest ways to medicate and consume medical marijuana is by infusing it into coconut oil.

The many health benefits of coconut oil

One of the fastest-growing trends among the “healthy eating” crowd nowadays is coconut oil, and for good reason. The health benefits of coconut oil are many, and include hair care, skin care, stress relief, cholesterol level maintenance, weight loss, boosted immune system, proper digestion and regulated metabolism and many others. Coconut oil can also provide relief from kidney problems, heart diseases, high blood pressure, diabetes, HIV, and cancer, while helping to improve dental quality and bone strength. The benefits of coconut oil can be attributed to the presence of lauric acid, capric acid and caprylic acid, and their respective properties, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-fungal, antibacterial and soothing qualities.

The proper infusion of cannabis into coconut oil is a time consuming and tedious process.  Green Leaf Labs has undergone years of research and testing to determine the exact process and methodologies to produce the most effective and pure products available on the market today.

Don’t be fooled by others claims.  If they are not infusing at very low temperatures for a long time, they are not providing products that will have therapeutic or any medicinal benefits for you.

About Registration and the ACMPR

Green Leaf Labs keeps all of your personal information confidential and utilizes software that complies with the security standards of HIPPA (US) and PIPEDA (Canada)

We can help! Fill in the Contact Us form above and we will contact you with a list of cannabis practitioners near where you live.

You can contact us through the above methods, either, phone, email, or the Contact Us form. All communication is held within the strictest of confident. Patient confidentiality is very important to us. Speak with one of our product specialists for guidance on the registration process.

For more information please contact us at 1-866-298-8588

The Access to Cannabis for Medical Purposes Regulations (ACMPR) is the most current regulations enforced by Health Canada to give qualified individuals access to safe, high quality medical cannabis. Individuals, authorized by their healthcare practitioner with a medical need for medical cannabis, are able to access it by registering with a licensed producer. Once all documentation has been received and verified by Green Leaf Labs, patients may place an order.

Some Canadian private insurance companies have begun coverage of medical cannabis for certain conditions. Contact your Health insurance provider to see if you are covered.

Products

No! All of our recommended cannabis is grown hydroponically within sealed, medical-grade pods. We ensure that there is no pesticides of any kind. We also endsure that only use natural and organic fertilizers is used throughout the production process.

We do not offer or recommend edible food products at this time. The cooking process of edibles exceeds the preparatory temperatures we use in our products and would greatly diminish or basically killing the potency and effectiveness. However, Green Leaf Labs is conducting research and testing into various edibles and drinks while maintaning the medicinal quality and health benifits associated with our brand

Samples of products are sent to Health Canada qualified independent third-party laboratories for testing and analysis.

Medical cannabis should be stored in a cool dark location for be results. Health Canada recommends a shelf-life of 12 months. Remember that even with child-proof packaging, keep all medication out of reach of children.

Green Leaf Labs can recommend from 26 different products that vary from high CBD to high THC depending on your prescribed requirement. Please contact us for a free and confidential consultation.

Cancer Info

Cannabidiol displays unexpectedly high potency as an antagonist of CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists in vitro.

Background and Purpose A nonpsychoactive constituent of the cannabis plant, cannabidiol has been demonstrated to have low affinity for both cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. We have shown previously that cannabidiol can enhance electrically evoked contractions of the mouse vas deferens, suggestive of inverse agonism. We have also shown that cannabidiol can antagonize cannabinoid receptor agonists in this tissue with a greater potency than we would expect from its poor affinity for cannabinoid receptors. This study aimed to investigate whether these properties of cannabidiol extend to CB1 receptors expressed in mouse brain and to human CB2 receptors that have been transfected into CHO cells.

Experimental Approach The [35S]GTPS binding assay was used to determine both the efficacy of cannabidiol and the ability of cannabidiol to antagonize cannabinoid receptor agonists (CP55940 and R-(+)-WIN55212) at the mouse CB1 and the human CB2 receptor.

Key Results This paper reports firstly that cannabidiol displays inverse agonism at the human CB2 receptor. Secondly, we demonstrate that cannabidiol is a high potency antagonist of cannabinoid receptor agonists in mouse brain and in membranes from CHO cells transfected with human CB2 receptors.

Conclusions and Implications This study has provided the first evidence that cannabidiol can display CB2 receptor inverse agonism, an action that appears to be responsible for its antagonism of CP55940 at the human CB2 receptor. The ability of cannabidiol to behave as a CB2 receptor inverse agonist may contribute to its documented anti-inflammatory properties.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17245363

Cannabidiol is a negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor

Background and Purpose Cannabidiol has been reported to act as an antagonist at cannabinoid CB1 receptors. We hypothesized that cannabidiol would inhibit cannabinoid agonist activity through negative allosteric modulation of CB1 receptors.

Experimental Approach Internalization of CB1 receptors, arrestin2 recruitment, and PLCβ3 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, were quantified in HEK 293A cells heterologously expressing CB1 receptors and in the STHdhQ7/Q7 cell model of striatal neurons endogenously expressing CB1 receptors. Cells were treated with 2-arachidonylglycerol or Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol alone and in combination with different concentrations of cannabidiol.

Key Results Cannabidiol reduced the efficacy and potency of 2-arachidonylglycerol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol on PLCβ3- and ERK1/2-dependent signalling in cells heterologously (HEK 293A) or endogenously (STHdhQ7/Q7) expressing CB1 receptors. By reducing arrestin2 recruitment to CB1 receptors, cannabidiol treatment prevented internalization of these receptors. The allosteric activity of cannabidiol depended upon polar residues being present at positions 98 and 107 in the extracellular amino terminus of the CB1 receptor.

Conclusions and Implications Cannabidiol behaved as a non-competitive negative allosteric modulator of CB1 receptors. Allosteric modulation, in conjunction with effects not mediated by CB1 receptors, may explain the in vivo effects of cannabidiol. Allosteric modulators of CB1 receptors have the potential to treat CNS and peripheral disorders while avoiding the adverse effects associated with orthosteric agonism or antagonism of these receptors.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.13250/suppinfo

Many people that are chronically or terminally ill are coming forth looking for cannabis therapy. It is true cannabis is working miracles for a huge and varied range of diseases because cannabinoids act as neurotransmitters throughout our entire system to bring the body back into balance, or homeostasis. Cannabinoids also kill cancer cells. In addition to cancer, cannabis therapy helps and sometimes cures nervous disorders such as PTSD, MS, insomnia, spasticity, convulsions, ADHD, and Alzheimer’s; digestive disorders like colitis, nausea or leaky gut syndrome; disorders of the internal organs like diabetes, asthma, or high blood pressure; and chronic pain and inflammation in the muscular and reproductive system. Below is a discussion of Cannabis and Cancer.

Cannabis cures cancer. There have been enough studies in test tubes and animals and enough cases in humans to unequivocally say that Cannabis cures cancer.

It counters angiogenesis (development of blood vessels) in tumors and shrinks them down to nothing. Cannabis promotes apoptosis and is antiproliferative. This means that this herb kills cancer cells, and prevents cancerous cells from proliferating and traveling throughout the body. Cigarette smokers who also smoke Marijuana get far less lung cancer, and those that smoke Marijuana alone get no more lung cancer than non-smokers. Cannabis acts as an appetite stimulant for those on chemotherapy or suffering from wasting diseases, including infant Failure-to-Thrive disorder. Cannabis is an extremely powerful antioxidant (1000 times more powerful than Vitamin C) and has the unique ability to cross blood-brain barrier and cure brain tumours. For more information and studies, refer to www.CureYourOwnCancer.org Fresh Cannabis Fresh cannabis contains cannabinoids in a different form. In the living and newly harvested plant, cannabinoids are attached to acids. These acids begin to break off of the cannabinoids upon harvest of the plant. Drying the plant breaks more of them off, and heating the plant decarboxylates, or removes the acids from all the cannabinoids. The acid form of a cannabinoid has completely different effects than the decarboxlylated, or non-acid form. For example, THCacid found in a fresh plant is not psychoactive, but when it converts to THC in the dried or processed plant, it becomes psychoactive. The only cannabinoid acids that have been studied for their medical effects are THCa and CBDa. These are the most common cannabinoids found in today’s plants and they have medicinal values that cure cancer. THCa has been proven in test tube and animal studies to be non-psychoactive, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and cures prostate cancer. CBDa is antibiotic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and also cures prostate cancer. Doctors and healers in Northern California and Luxenberg have witnessed many cases of fresh cannabis curing many different types of cancer, including pediatric brain cancer. For more information on fresh cannabis, see www.cannabisinternation.org

Ointments, infused oils and tinctures. Because cannabinoids are both water and fat soluble, they can easily pass through the skin and topical applications of Cannabis, coconut oil infused with Cannabis, and tinctures of Cannabi will work their magic when applied to the skin. Topical applications almost never cause a psychoactive affect.

Following the dosage recommendations is essential for building up tolerance to the psychoactive affect. Even at the tiny initial dose, many patients will sleep for the first two or three days. This should not cause concern, as sleep and rest are the states when most healing occurs. They do not need to eat, but keep water handy. Increasing the dose too fast can lead to vomiting, dizziness, and being extremely “stoned,” or feeling like you might be in a coma. These effects are actually not harmful, but can be scary. They will pass in a few hours. Sometimes a caffeinated drink like black tea or coffee will help them pass faster. If this happens to you, skip your next dose, but continue afterward at a smaller dose and build up more slowly.

Cannabis oil will likely lower your blood pressure naturally, so you may be able to cease blood pressure medications. It will also act as an anti-inflammatory and pain reliever, so you may be able to cut down on any pharmaceutical pain medications you are taking. It also repairs the pancreas and can cure diabetes, so you may be able to reduce any insulin you are using.

(IMPORTANT: Please consult your doctor prior to making any adjustments or changes to your pharmaceutical medications.)

Written by David McNamee
July 15, 2015

The main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis - tetrahydrocannabinol - could be used to reduce tumor growth in cancer patients, according to an international research team.

Previous studies have suggested that cannabinoids, of which tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is one, have anti-cancer properties. In 2009, researchers at Complutense University in Spain found that THC induced the death of cancer cells in a process known as "autophagy."

The researchers found that administering THC to mice with human tumors initiated autophagy and caused the growth of the tumors to decrease. Two human patients with highly aggressive brain tumors who received intracranial administration of THC also showed similar signs of autophagy, upon analysis.

The team behind the new study - co-led by Complutense University and the University of Anglia (UEA) in the UK - claims to have discovered previously unknown "signaling platforms" that allow THC to shrink tumors.

The researchers induced tumors in mice using samples of human breast cancer breast cancer cells. When the tumors were targeted with doses of THC, the researchers found that two cell receptors were particularly associated with an anti-tumor response.

"THC, the major active component of marijuana, has anti-cancer properties. This compound is known to act through a specific family of cell receptors called cannabinoid receptors," says Dr. Peter McCormick, from UEA's School of Pharmacy.

"We show that these effects are mediated via the joint interaction of CB2 and GPR55 - two members of the cannabinoid receptor family. Our findings help explain some of the well-known but still poorly understood effects of THC at low and high doses on tumor growth."

However, the team is unsure which receptor is the most responsible for the anti-tumor effects.

Dr. McCormick says that there has been a "great deal of interest" in understanding the molecular mechanisms behind how marijuana influences cancer pathology. This has been accompanied by a drive in the pharmaceutical industry to synthesize a medical version of the drug that retains the anti-cancer properties but to no avail so far.

"By identifying the receptors involved we have provided an important step towards the future development of therapeutics that can take advantage of the interactions we have discovered to reduce tumor growth," says Dr. McCormick.

By Catherine Hiller
Dec 17, 2016

Barriers to Research Dr. Tashkin, was able to get funding for his study because he was examining the dangers of marijuana. Any study examining its benefits in humans will not get funding from the National Institute of Drug Abuse or from any other federal source. It is difficult to study cannabis because in most of the country it is illegal. And in the US, despite thousands of years of medical use, marijuana is (mis)labeled a Schedule I drug: highly addictive and of no medical value. Furthermore, any research using federal money must use marijuana grown at the University of Mississippi, which is apparently of poor quality.
No surprise, then, that in the US, it is difficult to investigate the claim that cannabis can cure cancer.

International Studies In other countries, however, the claim is being given serious study. In Spain, Dr. Juan Sepulveda believes that cannabis works well against gliomas (brain cancers).
Because of their fatty composition, cannabinoids can slide through the blood-brain barrier and attack cancer cells in the brain. He’s “making good science independent of pharma” by conducting an independent trial in humans with gliomas to determine cannabis effectiveness and ideal dosing. When Dr. Manuel Guzman of Madrid injected THC into brain tumors in rats, the tumors shrank. By using cannabinoids, he says, “We are stimulating a natural system that is already there.”

Father Cannabinoid Israel’s Raphael Mechoulam the father of cannabinoid research, discovered THC in 1964 and the endocannabinoid system in the 1990s. He coined the term “entourage effects” to describe how THC, CBD and other cannabinoids in marijuana work best together. At 85, Mechoulam is still excited by the potential for cannabis medicine. He notes that it has effectively treated various kinds of tumors – breast, prostate, liver – in mice. “Unfortunately, well-designed human trials have not been done. It is unbelievable that neither government agencies nor private foundations have gone ahead or encouraged clinical trials – but this is a fact! There are no real published clinical trials with cannabinoids against any cancer!”
Until there are well- designed clinical trials, we will not know whether cannabis can cure cancer in humans. There are, however, strong indications that it might.

True Sensation The headline of the article in Wake Up World reads, “100 Scientific Studies Agree Cannabis Annihilates Cancer.” It may seem sensational, but it actually understates the case: at www.cancer.gov, the website for the NIH Cancer institute, if you put “cannabis” in the search box, you get many results. A study in Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, for example, shows that CBD down regulates aggressive breast cancer cells in mice. The journal Blood reports that cannabis both aids other chemo drugs and independently kills cancer cells in the test tube. The Journal of Clinical Investigation reports that in animal tests, cannabinoids were effective against melanoma and other skin cancers. The list goes on, with promising research about cancer cell death in uterine, testicular, prostate, lung cancer and lymphoma. What works in the test tube or in mice does not necessarily work well in people, but it certainly should be investigated.

An Exciting Study Epidemiology is the study of health in populations to understand the causes and patterns of health and illness. An epidemiological study looks at a particular group over time and can be useful at teasing out unexpected links. The National Cancer Institute reports that 84,000 men took part in the California Men’s Health Study. After 16 years, and adjusting for various factors, rates of bladder cancer were found to be 45% lower in cannabis users. This is certainly good news, but if cannabis is a potent anti-cancer agent why didn’t the incidence of all cancers drop in the cannabis users? As the Spanish researcher Dr. Juan Sepulveda says, without focused studies, “We have only stories.”

Anecdotal Evidence And what stories they are! Individual stories about cannabis curing cancer are often dismissed as being merely “anecdotal evidence”: hearsay, not hard facts. Yet when person after person attests to remission after using marijuana products, it’s hard to remain completely skeptical. Here are a few comments after a recent article in Greenflower Media:

Stage 4 Neuroendocrine cancer of the pancreas and Liver high grade to remission. It took me 1 year on cannabis oil to get a clear scan. This is an incurable cancer with microscpoic cells most likely still in my body. BUT I have had 3 clear scans..I continue with a maintenance dose for life.

Cannabis oil provided the cure for my stage 4 pancreatic cancer. 3 DX of pancreatic cancer and discharged from UCLA with "Sorry. We can't help you. You could try chemotherapy with only a 5% survival rate or take this bag of oxy's to relieve your pain." I obtained hi THC cannabis oil and cured the cancer within 4.5 months. I've has 2 MRI's in the last 4 months and have been declared cancer free.

I'm a resident of Colorado and grew my first legal cannabis in 2014. I made Oil following his online instructions and then used the oil topically on a very nasty Basel cell carcinoma on my left ear that had returned after having it surgically removed about 8 years earlier and after 6 days of applying the oil to the area, it dissolved and is clear.

But How Does It Work? In the test tube and in mice, cannabis fights cancer three ways. It is antiproliferative, blocking cancer’s ability to metastasize. It is anti-angiogenic, suppressing the blood vessels tumors need to grow. And it is pro-apoptotic, causing cell death in cancer cells while leaving normal cells alone.
Cannabis can be given to cancer patients in various ways. It can be smoked or vaped or swallowed (as cannabis oil in a capsule or using a ear dropper or small syring that can measure .25mL). The latter being the best option to start with.

Helping With the Symptoms However, when it’s ingested orally, cannabis is very useful in treating people with cancer. It helps alleviate pain, depression, insomnia, nausea, and loss of appetite in cancer patients.
Its curative effects and its palliative effects are striking. Dr. Tashkent says, “One medicine taken instead of five drugs with their side effects and addictions. I tell my patients that marijuana takes care of any combination of these."

This brief survey touches lightly on a few essential concepts. Mostly I would like to leave you with an appreciation that nature has designed the perfect medicine that fits exactly with our own immune system of receptors and signaling metabolites to provide rapid and complete immune response for systemic integrity and metabolic homeostasis.
By: Dennis Hill

How It Works (Abstract) There is a plentiful supply of research articles and personal testaments that show the efficacy of cannabis effecting cancer remission. However, only a few point to the mechanism by which the cancer cells die. To understand this better we need to know what metabolic processes provide life to the cells.

There are two structures in most cells that sustains life; one is the mitochondria, and the other is the endoplasmic reticulum. The mitochondria primarily produces adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that provides the necessary energy. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a loosely bound envelope around the cell nucleus that synthesizes metabolites and proteins directed by the nuclear DNA that nourish and sustain the cell.

Let us look first at tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and observe that THC is a natural fit for the CB1 cannabinoid receptor on the cancer cell surface. When THC hits the receptor, the cell generates ceramide that disrupts the mitochondria, closing off energy for the cell.

Disruption of the mitochondria releases cytochrome c and reactive oxygen species into the cytosol, hastening cell death. It is notable that this process is specific to cancer cells. Healthy cells have no reaction to THC at the CB1 receptor. The increase in ceramide also disrupts calcium metabolism in the mitochondria, completing the demise to cell death.

The other cannabinoid we know is effective in killing cancer cells is cannabidiol (CBD). The primary job of CBD in the cancer cell is to disrupt the endoplasmic reticulum through wrecking of the calcium metabolism, pushing calcium into the cytosol. This always results in cell death. Another pathway for CBD to effect cancer cell death is the Caspase Cascade, which breaks down proteins and peptides in the cell. When this happens the cell cannot survive. Again, these processes are specific to cancer cells, no normal cells are affected.

Reference:

1. The Journal of Neuroscience, February 18, 2009 • 29(7):2053–2063 • 2053
Cannabidiol Targets Mitochondria to Regulate Intracellular Calcium Levels.
School of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, United Kingdom.

2. Mol Cancer Ther July 2011 10; 1161
Cannabidiol Induces Programmed Cell
Death in Breast Cancer Cells by Coordinating the Cross-talk between Apoptosis and Autophagy

Ashutosh ShrivastavaPaula M. KuzontkoskiJerome E. Groopman, and  Anil Prasad.

Division of Experimental Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

How Do Cannabinoids Kill Cancer?

The Endocannabinoid System (ECS) started revealing itself to researchers in the 1940s and by the late ‘60s the basic structure and functionality had been laid out. Today we know the ECS is a comprehensive system of biochemical modulators that maintain homeostasis in all body systems including the central and peripheral nervous systems, all organ systems, somatic tissues, and all metabolic biochemical systems, including the immune system.

This homeostatic matrix is not a recent evolutionary twist just for humans; we find the Endocannabinoid System in every chordate creature for the last 500 million years. It is a fully mature biochemical technology that has maintained health and metabolic balance for most of the history of life itself.

The two major interactive systems within the ECS are (1) the cannabinoid receptors that we find on all cell surfaces and neurological junctions and (2) the endocannabinoids that fit the receptors to trigger various metabolic processes. Looking at a cannabinoid receptor distribution map we see that CB1 receptors, that are most sensitive to anandamide, are found in the brain, spinal nerves, and peripheral nerves. CB2 receptors preferred by 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are found largely in the immune system, primarily the spleen. A mix of CB1 and CB2 receptors are found throughout the rest of the body including the skeletal system. And yes, 2-AG or CBD will grow new trabecular bone. It is also useful to note that both anandamide and 2-AG can activate either CB1 or CB2 receptors.

The nature of the endocannabinoids are functionally much like neurotransmitters, but structurally are eicosanoids in the family of signaling sphingolipids. These signaling cannabinoids keep track of metabolic systems all over the body. This information is shared with the nervous system and the immune system so that any imbalance is attended to. If the body is in chronic disease or emotional stress, the immune system can fall behind and lose control of compromised systems. It is here that phytocannabinoids can pitch in to support the stressed body in a return to health. The cannabis plant provides analogues of the body’s primary signaling cannabinoids. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is mimetic to anandamide, and cannabidiol (CBD) is mimetic to 2-AG, and has the same affinity to CB1 and CB2 receptors; providing the body with additional support for the immune and endocannabinoid systems.

Phytocannabinoids supercharge the body’s own Endocannabinoid System by ramping up the response to demand from the immune signaling system in two modes of intervention: one, of course, is in bonding with the cannabinoid receptors; the other is in regulation of innumerable physiological processes, such as cannabinoid’s powerful neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory actions, quite apart from the receptor system. It is interesting to note here that the phytocannabinoids and related endocannabinoids are functionally similar, but structurally different. As noted above, anandamide and 2-AG are eicosanoids while THC and CBD are tricyclic terpenes.

The National Institutes of Health tell us that THC is the best known because of its signature psychotropic effect. This government report shows THC to be effective as an anti-cancer treatment, an appetite stimulant, analgesic, antiemetic, anxiolytic, and sedative.

There is a plentiful supply of research articles and personal testaments that show the efficacy of cannabis effecting cancer remission. However, only a few point to the mechanism by which the cancer cells die. To understand this better we need to know what metabolic processes provide life to the cells.

There are two structures in most cells that sustains life; one is the mitochondria, and the other is the endoplasmic reticulum. The mitochondria primarily produces adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that provides the necessary energy. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a loosely bound envelope around the cell nucleus that synthesizes metabolites and proteins directed by the nuclear DNA that nourish and sustain the cell.

Let us look first at tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and observe that THC is a natural fit for the CB1 cannabinoid receptor on the cancer cell surface. When THC hits the receptor, the cell generates ceramide that disrupts the mitochondria, closing off energy for the cell. The cancer cell dies, not because of cytotoxic chemicals, but because of a tiny little shift in the mitochondria.

In every cell there is a family of interconvertible sphingolipids that specifically manage the life and death of that cell. This profile of factors is called the “Sphingolipid Rheostat.” If ceramide (a signaling metabolite of sphingosine-1-phosphate) is high, then cell death (apoptosis) is imminent. If ceramide is low, the cell will be strong in its vitality.

Disruption of the mitochondria releases cytochrome c and reactive oxygen species into the cytosol, hastening cell death. It is notable that this process is specific to cancer cells. Healthy cells have no reaction to THC at the CB1 receptor. The increase in ceramide also disrupts calcium metabolism in the mitochondria, completing the demise to cell death. Within most cells there is a cell nucleus, numerous mitochondria (hundreds to thousands), and various other organelles in the cytoplasm. As ceramide starts to accumulate, turning up the Sphingolipid Rheostat, it increases the mitochondrial membrane pore permeability to cytochrome c, a critical protein in energy synthesis. Cytochrome c is pushed out of the mitochondria, killing the source of energy for the cell. Ceramide also causes genotoxic stress in the cancer cell nucleus generating a protein called p53, whose job it is to disrupt calcium metabolism in the mitochondria. If this weren’t enough, ceramide disrupts the cellular lysosome, the cell’s digestive system that provides nutrients for all cell functions. Ceramide, and other sphingolipids, actively inhibit pro-survival pathways in the cell leaving no possibility at all of cancer cell survival.

The key to this process is the accumulation of ceramide in the system. This means taking therapeutic amounts of cannabinoid extract, steadily, over a period of time, keeping metabolic pressure on this cancer cell death pathway.

The other cannabinoid we know is effective in killing cancer cells is cannabidiol (CBD). The primary job of CBD in the cancer cell is to disrupt the endoplasmic reticulum through wrecking of the calcium metabolism, pushing calcium into the cytosol. This always results in cell death. Another pathway for CBD to effect cancer cell death is the Caspase Cascade, which breaks down proteins and peptides in the cell. When this happens the cell cannot survive. Again, these processes are specific to cancer cells, no normal cells are affected.

How did this pathway come to be? Why is it that the body can take a simple plant enzyme and use it for healing in many different physiological systems? This endocannabinoid system exists in all animal life, just waiting for its matched exocannabinoid activator.

This is interesting. Our own endocannabinoid system covers all cells and nerves; it is the messenger of information flowing between our immune system and the central nervous system (CNS). It is responsible for neuroprotection, and micro-manages the immune system. This is the primary control system that maintains homeostasis: our wellbeing.
Just out of curiosity, how does the work get done at the cellular level, and where does the body make the endocannabinoids? Here we see that endocannabinoids have their origin in nerve cells right at the synapse. When the body is compromised through illness or injury it calls insistently to the endocannabinoid system and directs the immune system to bring balance. If these homeostatic systems are weakened, it should be no surprise that exocannabinoids perform the same function. It helps the body in the most natural way possible.

To see how this works we visualize the cannabinoid as a three dimensional molecule, where one part of the molecule is configured to fit the nerve or immune cell receptor site just like a key in a lock. There are at least two types of cannabinoid receptor sites, CB1 (CNS) and CB2 (immune). In general CB1 activates the CNS messaging system, and CB2 activates the immune system, but it’s much more complex than this. Both THC and anandamide activate both receptor sites. Other cannabinoids activate one or the other receptor sites. Among the strains of Cannabis, C. sativa tends toward the CB1 receptor, and C. Indica tends toward CB2. So sativa is more neuroactive, and Indica is more immunoactive. Another factor here is that sativa is dominated by THC cannabinoids, and Indica can be higher than sativa in CBD (cannabidiol).

It is known that THC and CBD are biomimetic to anandamide and AG-2, that is, the body can use both interchangeably. Thus, when stress, injury, or illness demand more from endogenous anandamide than can be produced by the body, its mimetic exocannabinoids are activated. If the stress is transitory, then the treatment can be transitory. If the demand is sustained, such as in cancer, then treatment needs to provide sustained pressure of the modulating agent on the homeostatic systems.

Typically CBD gravitates to the 5-HT1A and Vanilloid receptors. CBD stimulates production of anandamide and AG-2, endogenous cannabinoids that are agonists for CB-1 and CB-2 receptors. From there, immune cells seek out and destroy cancer cells. Interestingly, it has been shown that THC and CBD cannabinoids have the ability to kill cancer cells directly without going through immune intermediaries. THC and CBD hijack the lipoxygenase pathway to directly inhibit tumor growth. As a side note, it has been discovered that CBD inhibits anandamide re-uptake. Here we see that cannabidiol helps the body preserve its own natural endocannabinoid by inhibiting the enzyme that breaks down anandamide.

Research shows that THC is metabolized to 11-Hydroxy-THC in the liver after oral consumption. We also know that 11-Hydroxy-THC is more potent than THC. This suggests that cannabis via smoking, or suppository is weaker clinically than oral since it misses the first-pass in the liver to convert. If you want to avoid the mental effects, use 1:1 THC:CBD. The CBD knocks out the mental effect while maintaining potency of the cannabis extract. My opinion is that oral cannabis extract with equal parts THC and CBD is the ideal cancer killer without the mental effects. The cannabinoids work in concert to kill cancer; this is known as the entourage effect; THC disrupts the cancer cell mitochondria, and CBD disrupts the cell’s endoplasmic reticulum, bringing certain cell death.

Also good to know that hydroxy-THC has a stronger mental effect than unmodified THC. If the cannabis oil has not been decarboxylated (to delete the acidic carboxyl radical), then there will be no effect of the THC. This is the most important issue is using cannabis to kill cancer. Without decarboxylation, the THC cannot fit the CB1 receptor on the cancer cell to cause cell death.

In 2006, researchers in Italy showed the specifics of how Cannabidiol (CBD) kills cancer. CBD stimulates what is known as the Caspase Cascade that kills the cancer cell. First, let’s look at the nomenclature, then to how Caspase kills cancer. Caspase in an aggregate term for all cysteine-aspartic proteases. The protease part of this term comes from prote (from protein) and -ase (destroyer). Thus the caspases break down proteins and peptides in the moribund cell. This becomes obvious when we see caspase-3 referred to as the executioner. In the pathway of apoptosis, other caspases are brought in to complete the cascade.

Even when the cascade is done and all the cancer is gone, CBD is still at work healing the body. Cannabidiol also shuts down the Id-1 gene; a gene that allows metastatic lesions to form. Fundamentally this means that treatment with cannabinoids not only kills cancer through numerous simultaneous pathways (the entourage effect), but prevents metastasis. What’s not to like. One researcher says this: CBD represents the first nontoxic exogenous agent that can significantly decrease Id-1 expression in metastatic carcinoma leading to the down-regulation of tumor aggressiveness.

This brief survey touches lightly on a few essential concepts. Mostly I would like to leave you with an appreciation that nature has designed the perfect medicine that fits exactly with our own immune system of receptors and signaling metabolites to provide rapid and complete immune response for systemic integrity and metabolic homeostasis.

Reference:

The Journal of Neuroscience, February 18, 2009 • 29(7):2053–2063 • 2053
Cannabidiol Targets Mitochondria to Regulate Intracellular Calcium Levels.
Duncan Ryan, Alison J. Drysdale, Carlos Lafourcade, Roger G. Pertwee, and Bettina Platt.
School of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, United Kingdom.
Mol Cancer Ther July 2011 10; 1161
Cannabidiol Induces Programmed Cell Death in Breast Cancer Cells by Coordinating the Cross-talk between Apoptosis and Autophagy

Ashutosh ShrivastavaPaula M. KuzontkoskiJerome E. Groopman, and Anil Prasad.

Division of Experimental Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/65/5/1635.abstract.

Sami Sarfaraz, Farrukh Afaq, Vaqar M. Adhami, and Hasan Mukhtar + Author Affiliations. Department of Dermatology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/pubmed.

J. Neuroimmunol. 2007 Mar;184(1-2):127-35. Epub 2006 Dec 28.

Immune control by endocannabinoids – new mechanisms of neuroprotection?   Ullrich O.   Merker K.   Timm J.   Tauber S.

Institute of Immunology, Medical Faculty, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Leipziger Str. 44, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany.

http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/cannabis/healthprofessional.

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Additional information and research

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